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Glossary | Acrylic

A man made synthetic polymer fibre which is extremely strong and is often used in upholstery fabrics..
Glossary | Blend

A combination of two or more different stable fibres twisted together within the same yarn. Fibres are blended for one or more reasons, e.g. cost, properties, appearance.
Glossary | Cotton

This is one of the major fibres used in the manufacture of furnishing fabrics and is produced from the "hair" of the seed of the cotton plant.
Glossary | Dye

A natural or chemical substance which is applied to a fabric or a yarn, thereby imparting a specific colour. Natural dyes come from plants, animals and minerals whilst synthetic dyes have been chemically created to supplement and sometimes replace natural dyes.
Glossary | Embossing

The production of a relief pattern on a fabric by passing it through an embossing calender, were one of the heated metal rollers is engraved with a pattern.
Glossary | Fibres

Many different fibres are used in the textile industry to produce the wide variety of fabrics we see in our market place. They are obtained from diverse sources and may date back 4 000 to 5 000 years to early civilisations.
Glossary | Greige

This terminology is used to describe fabrics after they have been woven on the loom and before undergoing any further processes. The term ‘loomstate’ is often used as an alternative.
Glossary | Herringbone

A classic fabric in which a combination of twill weaves is used in alternating directions to produce a striped pattern.
Glossary | Ikat

The resist dying of yarns before weaving results in a design know as an ikat. This is an ancient technique and the style is currently a big trend as an important design motif.
Glossary | Jacquards

They are intricately woven, medium to large-scaled designs woven on a Jacquard loom. These complex weaves are not possible on other simpler looms.
Glossary | Knitted Fabric

Fabric made by the intermeshing of loops of yarn in a knitting process. This is a completely different technology and is nothing like a woven fabric.
Glossary | Linen

Yarns spun or fabric woven entirely from flax fibres. The term has however, become a generic term for fabrics made from other fibres, which resemble those made from flax. These fabrics are characterised by a textured, beige-toned appearance and a tendency to crease.
Glossary | Moiré

Fabric which shows a moiré or wavy watermark pattern. This is produced in finishing by calendaring, usually on a fabric showing a rib or cord effect in the weft direction. The moiré effect can be achieved either by embossing with a roller engraved with a moiré pattern, or by feeding two layers of fabric to face through the calender. The effect may be permanent or temporary depending on the fabric(s) and chemicals used.
Glossary | Nap

The soft fibrous surface produced on a fabric by raising; a finishing process where some of the fibres are lifted from the fabric surface.
Glossary | Organza

A sheer, lightweight, plain weave fabric, with a relatively firm drape and handle, traditionally made from fine continuous filament silk yarns but now often made using other fibres.
Glossary | Pile

A surface effect on a fabric formed by loops or tufts of yarn that stand up from the body of the fabric. Velvet is a common example of a pile fabric.
Glossary | Railroaded

Patterns indicated as railroaded normally run across the fabric and not up the roll and are therefore not generally suitable for drapery, unless the fabric is wide-width.
Glossary | Silk

The fibre forming the cocoons produced by silkworms. This fibre is unwound and combined with more silk fibres to form silk yarns strong enough to weave fabrics from. Silk has a wonderful lustre and luxurious character but is easily damaged by exposure to sunlight and UV rays.
Glossary | Twist

The number of turns per unit length of a yarn. This process of blending and twisting yarns adds strength and character to the yarn.
Glossary | Uncut Pile

The surface on a fabric consisting of loops of yarn not unlike a carpet. Commonly known as ‘moquettes’ these woven warp-pile fabrics are normally quite pricey but of suberb quality.
Glossary | Velvet

A fabric woven with long lengths of fibre on the surface. The yarn is then cut so that during subsequent processes the cut ends stand upright to create a thick, close pile.
Glossary | Weaving

The process of forming a fabric by interlacing warp (lengthwise threads) and weft (crosswise threads) in a particular pattern.
Glossary | Yarn

An assembly of fibres, which may be twisted together to form ply yarns or blends.
Glossary | Z Twist

Twist in yarn where the direction of the twist follows the direction of the central part of the letter ‘Z’ , i.e. top right to bottom left.

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